Research

 

TOPICS: Arthritis, Asthma, Cancer, Childbirth, Dermatitis,  Haemophillia,  Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Migraine & Headaches, Pain Management,  Phobias: Fear of Flying & Public Speaking, Students Test Anxiety, Smoking Cessation, Stress & Hypertension, Surgery Recovery, Warts, Weight Loss.

NOTE: Please scroll to bottom of page for bibliography on each research paper

Asthma
Hypnosis has been shown to alleviate the subjective distress of patients with asthma: there were less frequent attacks, and less medication was required. Maher-Loughnan, G.P. (1970). In another study comparing Hypnosis and relaxation therapy the improvement with the Hypnotherapy group was much greater. And only Hypnosis subjects showed an improvement in physiologic measures of respiration. Maher-Loughnan, G.P., MacDonald, N., Mason, A.A. & Fry, L. (1962).

Arthritis
Following Hypnotherapy, patients with arthritis achieved significant decreases in pain, anxiety, and depression, and an increases in beta-endorphin-like immunoreactive material. Domangue BB; Margolis CG; Lieberman D; Kaji H. (1985)

Cancer
Women with metastatic breast cancer who received group Hypnosis therapy were able to reduce their pain experience by 50% compared to a control group. Both adolescent and adult cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy have fewer symptoms of anticipatory nausea and vomiting following Hypnotic interventions. Cotanch, P.; Hockenberry, M.; Herman, S. (1985). Zeltzer, L.; LeBaron, S. & Zeltzer, P.M. (1984).

Childbirth
Hypnotherapy has been used successfully to prolong pregnancy and prevent premature delivery. Schwartz, M. (1963) In Britain 55% of birthing women using hypnosis required no medication for pain relief, compared with 22% of women in non-hypnosis groups. In two other reports 58% of women using hypnotic analgesia required no medication. And five other reports quoted 60-79% of women using hypnosis required no medication. Check out www.easybirthing.com/science_and_research In another study subjects given hypnosis reported reduced pain, shorter stage 1 labours, less medication, higher Apgar scores, more frequent spontaneous deliveries than other group. Some had lower depression scores after birth than the other groups. Harmon, Hynan, & Tyre. (1990).

Dermatitis
Most clinicians and researchers agree that stress affects the course of dermatitis and eczema, and reducing stress levels has a positive effect on the course of the disease. Emotional factors have been shown to have a strong correlation with onset of the disease and also with flare-ups. Further more, several documented case studies have revealed that hypnosis can offer a successful treatment for sufferers. Kantor, S.D. (1990).

Haemophilia
Haemophiliac patients taught self-hypnosis significantly reduced both their level of self-reported distress and the amount of the factor concentrate required to control bleeding when compared with a control group of patients who did not undergo Hypnosis. Swirsky-Saccetti, T.; Margolis, C.G. (1986).

Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Hypnotherapy is one of the most successful treatment methods, giving 80+% success rate for abdominal pain and distension. It often results in assisting with other problems such as migraine and tension headaches. With patients who have severe chronic IBS, it was Hypnotherapy patients that showed dramatic improvement in all measures, and they maintained that improvement at a two year follow-up. Whorwell P.J; Prior A; Faragher E.B. (1988 & 1987).

Migraine & Headaches
Hypnosis is highly effective in the treatment of chronic migraine headaches. All Hypnotic methods appear to be superior to standard treatment relying on pharmacological approaches alone. Patients treated with Hypnosis had a significant reduction in severity and the number of attacks compared to a control group treated with traditional medications. At the one year follow-up the number of patients in the Hypnosis group who had no headaches for over three months was significantly higher. Anderson, J.A., Basker, M.A, Dalton, R. (1975).

Pain
Hypnosis was found to be effective in reducing pain and discomfort associated with repeated unpleasant medical interventions in a study of children with cancer. Hilgard, E.R. (1977). A significant reduction of pain and dysphoria was found following Hypnosis in a study of 19 patients with a variety of musculoskeletal disorders. Domangue, B.B. (1985).

Phobias
Public Speaking: The group who received hypnosis had a greater expectation for change and that change was achieved, than those who had non-hypnotic treatment, Schoenberger, N. E.; Kirsch, I.; Gearan, P.; Montgomery, G.; Pastyrnak, S.L. (1997).

Fear of Flying: 50% of patients afraid of flying were improved or cured after Hypnosis treatment. Spiegel, D. (1998)
Students Test Anxiety: Students taught self-hypnosis showed a significant reduction in anxiety scores (maintained at 6-month follow-up) then a control group. Stanton, H. E. (1994).

Smoking Cessation
In a recent stop smoking study, where smokers attended individual hypnotherapy for stop smoking over three sessions, 81% had stopped smoking after the treatment ended, and at a 12 month follow-up nearly 50% remained smoke free. And 95% of the people were satisfied with their treatment. Elkins GR, Rajab MH. (2004)

Stress & Hypertension
A trial compared Hypnosis with biofeedback or a combination of both. All groups had significant reduction in blood pressure. However, at six-month follow-up only patients receiving Hypnosis had maintained the reduction. Friedman, H; Taub, H. (1977 & 1978).

Surgery Recovery
Patients trained with Hypnosis before surgery had significantly shorter stays in hospital. Research shows that Hypnosis methods have been used successfully for anxiety associated with medical procedures. Rapkin, (1988). Spiegel, D. (1998).

Warts
There are several published, controlled studies of the use of hypnosis to cure warts that have shown cure rates as high as 80%. Several controlled experiments have shown that Hypnosis can be very effectively used to eliminate warts. Spiegel, D. (1998)

Weight Loss
Research has shown that hypnosis can have a significant affect on losing weight. In one study the hypnosis group (at least 20% overweight) lost an average of 17 lbs (107 kgs) while the non-hypnosis group lost an average of just .5lbs (0.32 kgs) Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, J. (1986)
A meta analysis of 18 studies showed that when hypnosis was included in treatment those who received hypnosis lost more weight than 90 percent of those not receiving hypnosis and maintained the weight loss two years after treatment ended. University of Connecticut, Storrs Allison DB, Faith MS.



Biblography:

ASTHMA: Maher-Loughnan, G.P. (1970). “Hypnosis and AutoHypnosis for the Treatment of Asthma.” International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 18, 1- 14. Maher-Loughnan, G.P., MacDonald, N., Mason, A.A. & Fry, L. (1962). “Controlled Trial of Hypnosis in the Symptomatic Treatment of Asthma.” British Medical Journal, 2, 371-376..

ARTHRITIS: Domangue, B.B., Margolis, C.G., Lieberman, D. & Kaji, H. (1985). “Biochemical Correlates of Hypnoanalgesia in Arthritic Pain Patients.” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 46, 235-238.

CANCER: (1) Spiegel, D. & Bloom, J.R. (1983b). “Group therapy and Hypnosis Reduce Metastatic Breast Carcinoma Pain.” Psychosomatic Medicine, 45, 333-339. (2) Spiegel, D., Bloom, J.R., Kraemer, H.,C. & Gottheil, E. (1989a). “Effect of Psychosocial Treatment on Survival of Patients with Metatastic Breast Cancer.” Lancet pp. 888-891.

CANCER: Cotanch, P., Hockenberry, M. & Herman, S. (1985). “Self-Hypnosis Antiemetic Therapy in Children Receiving Chemotherapy.” Oncology Nursing Forum, 12, 41- 46. & Zeltzer, L., LeBaron, S. & Zeltzer, P.M. (1984). “The Effectiveness of Behavioral Intervention for Reduction of Nausea and Vomiting in Children and Adolescents Receiving Chemotherapy.” Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2, 683-690.

CHILDBIRTH: (1) Schwartz, M. (1963). “The Cessation of Labor Using Hypnotic Techniques.” American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 5, 211-213. (2) Harmon, T.M., Hynan, M., & Tyre, T.E. Improved obstetric outcomes using hypnotic analgesia and skill mastery combined with childbirth education. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 525, 530, 1990.

DERMATITIS: Stress and psoriasis. Kantor SD Psoriasis Research Institute, Palo Alto, California 94301. Cutis (USA) Oct 1990, 46 (4) p321-2
HAEMOPHELIA: Swirsky-Saccetti, T. & Margolis, C.G. (1986). “The Effects of a Comprehensive Self- Hypnosis Training Program on the Use of Factor VIII in Severe Hemophilia.” International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 34, 71-83.
IBS: Whorwell, P.J., Prior, A. & Faragher, E.B. (1984). “Controlled Trial of Hypnotherapy in the Treatment of Severe Refractory Irritable-Bowel Syndrome.” Lancet, pp. 1232-1234.. Whorwell, P.J., Prior, A. & Colgan, S.M. (1987). “Hypnotherapy in Severe Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Further Experience.” Gut, 28, 423-425.

MIGRAINE – HEADACHES: Anderson, J.A., Basker, M.A. & Dalton, R. (1975). “Migraine and Hypnotherapy.” International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 23, 48-58.

PAIN: CHILDREN-CANCER: Hilgard, E.R. (1977). Divided Consciousness: Multiple Controls in Human Thought and Action. NY: John Wiley. 1977.
PAIN– MUSKULAR: Domangue, B.B., Margolis, C.G., Lieberman, D. & Kaji, H. (1985). Biochemical Correlates of Hypnoanalgesia in Arthritic Pain Patients.” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 46, 235-238.

PUBLIC SPEAKING: Schoenberger, N. E.; Kirsch, I.; Gearan, P.; Montgomery, G.; Pastyrnak, S.L. (1997).
FEAR OF FLYING: Spiegel, David, author. Report in the Harvard Mental Health Letter, September 1998, vol. 15, p. 5-6.

SMOKING CESSATION: Elkins GR, Rajab MH. (2004) Clinical hypnosis for Smoking Cessation: preliminary results pf a three session intervention. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 2004 Jan; 52 (1):73-81

STUDENT TEST ANXIETY: Stanton, H. E. (1994).

STRESS & HYPERTENSION: (1) Friedman, H. & Taub, H. (1977). “The Use of Hypnosis and Biofeedback Procedures for Essential Hypertension.” International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 25, 335-347.. (2) Friedman, H. & Taub, H. (1978). “A Six Month Follow-up of the Use of Hypnosis and Biofeedback Procedures in Essential Hypertension.” American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 20, 184-188.

SURGERY RECOVERY: (1) Rapkin, D.A., Straubing, M., Singh, A. & Holroyd, J.C. (1988). “Guided Imagery and Hypnosis: Effect on Acute Recovery from Head and Neck Cancer Surgery,” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Asheville, N.C. (2) Spiegel, David, author. Report in the Harvard Mental Health Letter, September 1998, vol. 15, p. 5-6.

WARTS: Spiegel, David, author. Report in the Harvard Mental Health Letter, September 1998, vol. 15, p. 5-6.

WEIGHT: (1) Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, J. (1986). Hypnotherapy in weight loss treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 489-492.. (2) University of Connecticut, Storrs Allison DB, Faith MS. Hypnosis as an adjunct to cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for obesity: a meta-analytic reappraisal. J Consult Clin. Psychol. 1996;64(3):513-516.

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